Information and History of Punjab



The Punjab state is referred to as northwest India; it is also called the “Land of Five Rivers”. However, in Vedic Era it was called as “Sapat Sindu”, which means the “Land of 7 Rivers. These seven rivers included the Yamuna, Satluj, Beas, Chenab, Ravi, Jehlum, and Sindu. However, the Mughals had changed the state’s name by changing it to “Panj-Aab” or Panjub referring to land of five rivers not including the Yamuna and Sindhu.



The five rivers running through the state of Punjab in India originated from the small different lakes in Himalayas. Going across the city beginning from Delhi to Afghanistan, the five rivers come in order of Beas, Satluj, Ravi, Chenab, and Jhelum. The Punjab history began during the times of Indus Valley civilization. These are also the times when the Aryan habitats arrived in the country. Lord Rama is believed to have been born in a place in Punjab known as Ghuram, which is today known as Patiala District. In addition, Lord Sri Krishna conveyed the immortal message of Kurukshetra and Gita within the state borders of Punjab.

Charak, founder of Ayuverdic branch of medicine; and, Kautilya, author of Arth-Shastra were said to have hailed in state of Punjab. Both are scholars of Taxilla University, a prominent learning institution during the ancient times.

Punjab state has a rich and fertile land that attracted many invaders all over the world. These invaders were faced bravely by the Punjabi people from the Shimla Hills to the Sind and Rajasthan borders, and from Attock to Delhi. Because of the various attacks of many intruders, Punjabi people developed into sturdy and strong people.

The civilization of Punjabi is one of the long-established civilizations in the world, with its illustrious people, folklore, script, attire, food, culture, and language. The Punjabi language originated from the Sanskrit source, which belongs to the lineage of Indo-European languages that include the Latin and Persian. The state of Punjab is land to many great warriors and saints. In 450 B.C., Alexander invaded the city and conquered Porus, the powerful Punjabi king and his kingdom along the riverbanks of Chenab.

History speaking, Punjab is the most important province in India. Apart from its rich history and civilization, the state is also rich in arts, culture, and cultivation. It is also the cradle of Proto-historic culture where ancient men progressed. During the early times, men were unfamiliar with domestication of animals and agriculture. Men only lived on root crops, fruits, and animal flesh as food. They lived under thick bushes and shady trees, caves of the mountains, and terraces of the rivers. However, when Proto-historic culture came, this gave way to the progress of men’s living style. Men come to learn about agriculture and eventually developed ceramic industries. They also learned the use of bronze and copper as manufacturing tools.

The oldest evidence of Punjab civilization was found in the Soan River Valley situated in west Punjab. In this place, digs made by ancient men were found. Between the Jhelum and Indus, stone tools made of flakes, flint, pebbles, and quartzite. In the same valley as well, there are indications on the end of first ice age and beginning of second ice age. The same evidences were also found in the Hamirpur Districts of Himachal Pradesh and Shiwalik Regions of Una.

Indications of Iron Age are visible during the historical period of Punjab state. In West Punjab, an important archeological discovery happened. This discovery was come to known as Indus Valley Civilization.

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